<A B S T R A C T>
by DR.KOBAYASHI, Hideyuki, DR.Eng.
Head of Urban Development Division, Building Research Institute,Ministry of Construction, Japan
Tachihara 1, Tsukuba-city, Ibaraki-prefecture, JAPAN 305
Tel +81-298-64-6619(direct)? Fax +81-298-64-6776
e-mail email@example.com URL : http://www.kenken.go.jp
1. Application of LS technologies for regional development
In Japan, CG simulation had become popular for presenting proposed plan for public works, public buildings and urban development, but the cost was more expensive than perspective drawing or miniature models.Ministry of Construction(MOC) provided budget for developing free software to achieve CG landscape simulation between 1993-96, to be utilized by local branch offices, and our BRI conducted the system development.The result is now disclosed from WEB site of BRI as Free-ware, including source codes, since 1997. The system comprises following functions and characteristics:
(1) Full 3D modeling and viewer functions.
(2) Photo montage with 3D model, through analyzing viewpoint of given photo.
(3) Various plotting functions, utilizing various elements recorded in database.
(4) Time-dependent materials and textures.
(5) Parametric elements, defined by users
(6) Urban planning simulation, based on lot subdivision pattern and regulations
Korean government planned to start similar development in 1996, and made investigation for existing technologies in Japan.?? They proposed this topic in "Japan-Korea agreement on co-operation for science and technology", and adopted.? After that, Korean Rural Research Institute has translated the system into their language, and appending such new functions, as land-shape modeling, etc.
Also within Japan, beside de-bugging, in order to enhance the practical use of this system, joint researches has been conducted between BRI and some private companies (1997-98), and following functions and technologies are already available now:
(T1) Modeling of existing environment and buildings from digital camera data.
(T2) Modeling of land shape and building from stereo air photo.
In Japan, besides the application to conventional landscaping of public works (civil engineering), the system is now utilized also in following types of urban projects:
(P1) Renewal of MSRB
(P2) Urban renewal (re-development) project
(P3) Land re-adjustment project in inner city area
All these projects are re-arrangement of existing human settlements.
During the decades of rapid urban growth and new development, the design of newly built space and structure may be proposals of planners and designers, while the inhabitants, mainly young new comers, could choose the favorite place, complex and unit.On contrary, for these kinds of projects, participation of the local old people is strongly promoted now.? If not, the projects will not go ahead.
For that purpose, more flexible and interactive presentation system is required.? This means that if some participant protest or propose something, the system had better to respond immediately, than to receive opinions as "homework" until next evaluation session (reminder the elaborated perspective drawing, miniature model, or rigid and fixed CG provided by outer consultants or soft-houses.? Therefore, our system is now usually operated by stuffs of project office on site, covering the data preparation.
(1)Renewal of MSRB in "Houkadai Complex" in Fukuoka (福岡) city (1996)
The previous 4 storied MSRBs were constructed in 1950's, by prefectural housing corporation.? They are going to append the total floor are and number of units, and also attending to integrate commercial use, regarding to financial feasibility.? ?Their solution was 11 storied urban complex.??? In order to recognize and evaluate the plan with existing inhabitants (most of them are elderly people), we provided the 3D data and showed in the meeting room on site, by using 21 inch display monitor.?? We also provided questioner to be filled with them.?? The questioner contained two parts, namely (a) as for the design of proposed new building and (b) as for the presentation system.?? (a) was consist of adjective pairs, and (b) asked monitor size, arrangement of scene, etc.??? They evaluated the system easier to understand in comparison with conventional perspective drawing and models, even though the cost for preparing data was a half (through tendering), and still fixing many bugs at that time.
During the 2 hours evaluation session, participants were interested in the scene from the units they are going to choose.? Therefore, after showing the complex from viewpoints we provided previously, we had to extend encore time, to see from additional viewpoints requested by respondents.? This suggests network type evaluation system in future, which can be evaluated individually (without meeting session altogether).
(2) Urban renewal project in Makuhari (幕張) South Railroad Terminal (1998-ongoing)
The famous Makuhari Messe and related business complex has come into operation, appending demand for transportation to nearby stations.??? Old Makuhari station has long served for old fishery settlements, inaccessible by large bus.? In order to network by providing rotary and wide road, urban renewal is required, because the local people don't want re-settle to another place.??? The total area is subdivided into 3 districts, namely, <a> housing & commercial district, conducted by HUDC(Housing and Urban Development Corporation),<b> commercial & transportation district, conducted by Chiba city, and <c> housing area, conducted by co-operative.
The leading HUDC decided to introduce CG simulation as communication tool with local people (currently, active representatives among all).? HUDC extended the site office, served with special staff for data preparation and operation for presentation.
<a>We tested the new technologies, (T1) and (T2), for preparing textured 3D data of existing environment and buildings (which are to be demolished), by using digital camera, and stereo air-photo.
<b>We provided the 3D data for planned new high-rise housing complex, through converting the CAD data, proposed by the designer of the consultant office.? We arranged the data which can be easily modified during the evaluation session, for example, changing the height, volume, or even texture of fa?ade.? The key issue in this site is "interactive system", and the evaluation session is now undergoing.
(3)Land re-adjustment project in Fukushima (福島)eastern inner city area(1997- )
Fukushima city has long paid effort to execute land-readjustment projects in the surrounding area, and the urbanized area is widely spreading.?? However (or consequently) the inner city area has lost the population and building density, and open space (parking lots) has become dominant in the landscape.?? Say, the basic choice of the city was "low dense & wide spread (not COMPACT" city.? However, the road in such inner city area is still narrow (road plan is not accomplished), and lot subdivision pattern is rather irregular.? Therefore, in order to re-vitalize those area, the city decided to introduce land-readjustment project also in inner-city area.? However, their long experience of this project has been for the suburban agricultural fields, and the inhabited area is very new object for them.
The city decided to utilize CG simulation to communicate with local people.? In case of applying CG system in the land readjustment project, we need functions to <a> design and evaluate the infrastructure (e.g. width of the road and height and frontage dimension of buildings along it), and <b> to design lot subdivision pattern and <c> to decide regulations applied to the newly re-adjusted area. Usually, buildings are individually designed and renewed or altered, therefore we need functions to forecast the future ensemble of buildings, based on the lot pattern and applied regulations.
The city government provided site office, and assigned a young staff to operate the CG system.? At first, he collected 3D data of existing buildings in the surrounding area to make alternative 3D data for future main street, and composed road and buildings.? Secondly, he entered the existing lot-subdivision pattern, by using land-registration map and digitizer.? Each sub-district will be replaced with detailed lot-subdivision plan step by step. The urban simulation function is now tested by using existing lot-pattern (it will mean the future forecasted townscape in case the land will not re-adjusted).
???? We BRI have provided the functions to create 3D data of cross-road in accordance with technical standard for road (by MOC), and now developing diachronic simulation described in 4. Since now, land-readjustment plan (lot subdivision pattern) will be designed and evaluated from sub-district to sub-district, part by part.
(4) Cultural Village Projects in I-cheon(利川), Korea(1998-)
The site in this rural village is located in good natural landscape, accompanied by rich villas.? Planning for improving footpath and historical heritage done by RDC, and proposal for individual re-construction of farmer houses in harmony with surroundings, is now undertaken by RRI-RDC.?? This site is the first case of applying Landscape Simulation by RRI.?? The team developed the data entry system for micro land-shape.
(5) Natural Ecological Park Project in Tanjing (唐津), Korea(1999-)
The large scale reclamation project resulted a small fresh-water lake, which is rare in Korea, and many birds of passage from southern countries started to spend hot season in this area.? Korean ecologists protested to preserve this area for these birds.? RDC decided to develop a sight-seeing park here, and to keep surrounding new reclaimed rice-field free from insecticides.? This planning, sponsored by UNEP, will be a second case of applying Landscape simulation technologies, to present the proposal and discuss with ecologist NGO groups.
2. Diachronic simulation for planning
Along with the Fukushima project, we come to realize that the land-readjustment project will be very long-term process, consist of rather ecological individual renewal events.? Some of them will only move the existing building to new lot, but others will re-build their houses, based on the compensated money.? Some of them might not reach the regulated maximal land use, and will extend again later.? In similar context, result of urban renewal cannot also last forever, but will be renewed again in some 60 or 100 years later, whose future requirement may have to be considered in the current renewal program.? In Korean cases also, rural villages or natural eco-systems are not definite plan but infinite endless process.
In order to follow-up these longitudinal design process, we developed a kind of trial diachronic simulation system to forecast the annual change of the area.? In this system, we prepare the initial condition at first, consist of existing building type, shape and age. Then we start the simulation year by year, by evaluating the probability of demolish (removal) and stochastic new construction, based on the statistic of building's life cycle. The parametric shape of new buildings are generated so as to meet with "assumed" regulations.? The annual change is sent to the landscape simulator through network, and the landscape is re-written year by year.? By operating this composite system, the site office can check the impact of designed lot-subdivision pattern and regulations, until some reach of visible future.?? Even the system can continuously generate until infinite future, but building technology innovation, or some economical condition might give unexpected impact in far future, making the current assumption unreasonable.
If we conceive "city planning" as large scale building design, controlled by single subject (designer, architect or planner, etc.), then synchronic CG system is enough, which can replace the perspective drawing or model, as a kind of presentation tool to enhance communication with users and inhabitants.
However, usually in Japan or also in many Asian cities, length of life of buildings are finite, and the concept of "permanent completion" is out of sense.? If this is truth, diachronic simulation technologies, will help us to forecast the impact of contemporary decision until the reachable and visible finite future, and, hopefully, help us to recognize the forecasted problems and obstacles in the near future.?? That kind of diachronic "urban simulation system" will lead us to a planning process, which could be called as "navigation", based on finite resource, finite period (visual reach) and seeking for finite solution, however, ever sliding and shifting ahead for the sustainable infinite future.